Roll out the shortcrust pastry and cut into 4-inch circles using a cookie cutter. Alternatively, you can first slice them into even square slices, ten roll each square into a ball and flatten it out as a circle.
Grease the backside of a muffin tin and then press each pastry circle onto the backside of each the muffin tin cup.
Brush with egg wash and bake on the top rack of the oven for 15 minutes until golden. Set aside and let cool down before removing them from the tin.
Making the Pie Filling:
In a large pot, heat cooking oil over medium heat.
Add garlic and chilli flakes. Cook for a minute until fragrant.
Add chopped onions and cook for 5 minutes until softened.
Stir in the mince, break up any lumps, and cook until browned.
Season with salt, black pepper, paprika, chilli powder (if using), and oregano.
Stir in the tomato paste and cook until deepened in colour.
Add in the baked beans, followed by the chopped tomatoes, beef stock, and bay leaf.
Bring to a boil. Then turn to medium-low heat, cover and let simmer for 30 minutes until reduced.
Stir in chopped parsley and cook for another 5 minutes before removing from heat.
Assembling the Pie:
Preheat oven to 200°C again if your oven has cooled down.
Scoop the meat mixture into each pastry cup until filled up. Top with grated cheddar cheese.
Bake at the top rack of the oven for 10 minutes until the cheese has melted and turned golden.